Models of Knowledge Management (KMModels) Explained

A process to transform information into knowledge within the organization is the Knowledge Management Cycle. It includes the procedure that mentions the capturing, processing, and distributing knowledge in the organization. The organization must adopt impressive models of knowledge management platforms based on its ability to enhance business performance and growing demands.



7 Knowledge Management Models

The knowledge spiral model, most commonly known as the SECI model, is one of the best adopted and widely used KM models within the organization.  This model provides the complete transformation process of tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge within the company.

The extension and modification of the knowledge spiral model take place in order to deal with the complicated and dynamic nature of the knowledge environment. This section highlights the essential theoretical models that work extensively in terms of knowledge management literature.

  1. Von Krogh and Roos Model

    Designed for Differentiating Between Individual Knowledge and Social Knowledge

    You can quickly understand the logic behind building the model by considering the following diagram.
    Von Krogh and Roos Model
    According to the organizational model, von Krogh and Roos came up with an innovative framework solution that the knowledge typically occurs in:

    • The mind of the people
    • Links between them

    This model examines knowledge management’s essence specifically in terms of:

    • Knowledge Workers
    • Better Communication Skills
    • Enterprise Structure
    • Network of Workers
    • HR Management

    The above five metrics initiate issues that can avert impressive strategies of knowledge management using cognitive perspectives. Now, what’s this term mean?

    It’s a cognitive system, whether in the form of human or virtual mode, having the sole responsibility to initiate or create a realistic KM model on a large scale. Once such model representations perform manipulation, the learning process comes into action.

    On the other hand, the system with organizational knowledge possessing functionalities using self-service or organization is cognitive epistemology. Here, people are free to select and work with the information that comes from external sources in a transparent manner.

    This perspective helps the individual’s brain work like a machine that works for logic purposes. In this case, the business needs an impressive framework to fetch information congruency like relational links, specifically from the logical environment perspective.

    The brain cannot process the sequential symbols but possess the strong potential to handle the complete perspectives, impressive knowledge management models, and effective processes. The inter-related connection of the different components is possible using the learning rules session to grab such information from the interior and exterior environments.

  2. Nonaka and Takeuchi

    Best for Knowledge Creation Process

    The Nonaka and Takeuchi KM model of knowledge conversion typically invokes four different knowledge conversion modes in the KM.

    Nonaka and Takeuchi Model

    Let us now highlight all the four approaches of the Nonaka and Takeuchi framework in detail.

    Socialization is the KM model technique through which an employee can quickly share tacit knowledge using monitoring, copying, implementation, and involvement in conventional and non-conventional communities and groups to enhance the traffic. This process typically develops the prevention of utilizing a physical or virtual space where interaction mainly holds on a social level.

    Externalization is an innovative platform to convey tacit knowledge into explicit concepts. This innovative approach of the KM model plays a vital role in knowledge sharing and the creative process as the tacit knowledge typically is highly internalized.

    A combination is a KM model approach through which the organization can smoothly integrate the concepts into an effective knowledge system. Some examples are review report forms, analysis trending, a detailed executive summary, or a new database for content management.

    Internalization is a responsive manner to consolidate explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge.

  3. Choo Sense-Making KM model

    Ideal for Decision-Making Process

    The three major components that Choo Sense-Making KM Model shows a considerable focus on Sense-Making, Knowledge Creation, Decision-making skills.
    Choo Sense-Making KM model
    To flatten the vision of the organization, the above three highly interconnected processes play a vital role. The potential of knowledge creation and its commitment to implement such knowledge creation is of utmost importance.

    The organization’s primary purpose is to adapt and prosper in a dynamic and highly-complicated environment. This KM model’s technique becomes quite possible by implementing various activities to interpret relevant information. Now, the business can quickly adopt the changes, drifts, and structure of clients, suppliers, and even competitors.

    A company can quickly create or acquire, manage and process data or information to develop new knowledge using an innovative concept named organizational learning. Once such grabbed information context is ready, it helps the companies initiate new abilities, new product creation, services and product development, better user experience, and redesigning organizational processes.

    The company must have the capability to deal with an option that is more reasonable, informative, and ready to be occupied based on its strategy.

    This model helps the company to invoke all the informational elements in terms of organizational actions.

  4. WIIGS KM Model

    Designed Explicitly for Knowledge Building Scenario

    Karl Wiig, knowledge management model, depicts that the knowledge management process must be perfect and reasonable to make useful and valuable knowledge.
    Wiig Model
    Let us now highlight the crucial dimensions in this model of KM.

    It is a process through which information-sourcing occurs using tacit or explicit knowledge within the business. On an initial level, the organization needs to be aware of complete knowledge and knowledge-sharing capabilities using an efficient KM model’s completeness approach.

    On an initial level, the organization must be ready with complete knowledge. If no one exists to utilize or access such information or knowledge, then it is of no use for an individual.

    It deals with well-structured relations between the number of knowledge objects to create a strong network. As more the knowledge base is connected, the more the content is consistent and of more excellent value.

    The essential metrics like facts, procedures, relevant values, cunning, and relative connections must be harmonious and connected. However, the majority of the knowledge content does not meet such perfections.

    It is a technique through which the organization can know something from a specific opinion point. Such knowledge management typically applies to twofold proportions.

  5. Boisot I-Space

    Perfect for Decision-Making Process

    The knowledge management model by Boisot creates a decision-making ability based on useful information and differentiates from a physical asset. Such differentiation of information from data by Boisot typically highlights all the information that is of prime importance to website observers. Boisot says that they are solely responsible for performing data extraction as a mandate function as per their experience or prior knowledge.

    Boisot’s model uses a three-dimensional cube structure:

    Boisot's model uses a three-dimensional cube structure

    Boisot came up with research and initiated Social Learning Cycle (SLC) that acquire the I-Space to create an impressive model using active knowledge workflow using six steps:

    With data availability of appropriate information, the business can quickly grab the understanding context.

    Using a defined structure, the complexity resolves by invoking the structure and consistency to this awareness as codified knowledge comes into action.

    The codified understanding that has just initiated generalize to a broader range of practical situations as knowledge becomes more intellectual.

    Once the diffusion occurs for the knowledge, there exists a sharing of understanding specific to the target population in a codified and abstract form.

    The newly systemized insights apply to several situations that typically invoke new learning experiences as knowledge is absorbed and give rise to learnt behaviour to become tacit knowledge.

    The security of abstract knowledge is quite possible using concrete implementation. The leading examples of substantial knowledge are artifacts, rules and some behaviour patterns.

    The primary goal of Boisot’s model is to serve companies with cost-effective solutions. The procedures to enhance and develop knowledge assets within the organization are changing drastically. In simple words, the business simply adopts dynamic knowledge management strategies that directly help the learning cycle’s playful nature.

  6. ZACK Knowledge Management

    Best for Converting Information to Usable Knowledge

    Meyer and Zack initiated the KM Model that includes the stages of a KM cycle highlighting the “refinery.”

    The ZACK KM Model includes the following steps:

    ZACK Knowledge Management

    Every stage of this framework follows the basic rationality principle of communicating with each other to facilitate knowledge repository analysis.

    This step primarily focuses on the quality and accuracy of the information. It means that the organization needs to deal with the perfect information source and its related functionality.

    For instance, suppose you own a biscuit factory and need to buy wheat flour. As a result, you have multiple lists of wheat flour vendors, each possessing different pricing and properties for the same item. A quiet confusion occurs in your mind as you have to compare something and purchase the same thing having the same configuration.

    How do you get out of this complicated situation?

    To deal with such a situation, the company needs to invoke standardized information to capture it. Data that are comparable and essential for biscuit manufacturing is available in a specified format.

    The Acquisition follows the primary principle of “Garbage In Garbage Out.” It means that individuals must take into account proper training to retrieve correct first-time information.

    Now, what’s the next step after acquiring information?

    It has to be stored, but not all information to be stored. The first thing that the business needs to convert it into knowledge packets only. It will be relatively easy to store and retrieve for future purposes. This conversion process of information to knowledge packets is refinement.

    Based on the organization’s requirements, there exist multiple refinement types, as shown in the table:

    multiple refinement types

    Nowadays, the customized software includes information repositories, but most traditional organizations use files, folders, and other printed information to store information.

    But when to use such information?

    The answer is during the product creation process. Let us demonstrate this point of view with a simple example of information for the recipe and label creation, packaging, and other aspects.

    In this step, various information recipients are available, and the interactive method through which such information retrieval occurs.

    E.g., mails, prints, dossiers, etc. Moreover, the organization may use exact timing, excellent,t frequency, and design to retrieve any form or language to receive the best possible result.

    A final step where the developed “information” takes the shape of “knowledge.” The recipient consideration becomes the primary factor for the presented information, dependent on the organization’s complexities. The information collection and packaging plays a vital role in enhancing business productivity.

    The final users usually generated this knowledge’s feedback mechanism to enhance the improvement in the knowledge repository. This, in turn, removes needless information or create new elements to the process of the information capture.

    Meyer and Zack’s model serves to be the leading and perfect model possessing detailed scope in the different areas of this competitive market.

  7. Complex Adaptive System Models

    Based on Advanced Intelligent Techniques

    An organization is nothing  but seen as an adaptive, complex system  – Intelligent Complex Adaptive Systems (ICAS)

    What is a Complex Adaptive System?

    A system with several individualistic representatives that perform significant interaction locally is a complex adaptive.

    The knowledge management models that adopt complex adaptive structures include functions strings.  The primary reason behind it is to bring insurance among the living system feasibility in general and of organizations, to a great extent.
    Complex Adaptive System

    ICAS systems typically follow cybernetics principles. Is it connected to Cyber based information? No. It uses communications and control mechanisms to understand the process a viable business should perform.

    The adaptive systems possess various independent representative that interacts with each other to enhance the business performance. It leads explicitly to some complicated adaptation circumstances, which is possible just because of their behaviour.

    The model usually includes composite behaviour, where the self-organized people in organizations are intelligent elements. In addition to it, such aspects are a fundamental part of the organization’s hierarchies.


These are the leading and top-most knowledge management models that help you, and your organization deal with the knowledge management approaches on a large scale.


For any organization, the primary limelight is to create and maintain the four pillars of knowledge management. It helps the organization to enhance the strategic goals in a more efficient manner. The following are the four pillars of KM that provide great transformation within the organization.

  • Leadership
  • Business Value
  • Technology
  • Learning

The two major types of knowledge that organizations usually adopt are:

  • Explicit Knowledge
  • Tacit Knowledge

The knowledge Management Cycle (KMC) includes:

  • Identify/Create
  • Store
  • Share
  • Use
  • Learn
  • Improve

A knowledge management system’s primary purpose is to interpret, structure, store, and finally share the company or individual’s information assets within the organization. The knowledge management system’s nature includes the process or framework to create new knowledge and use that new knowledge to deal with problem-solving capabilities. Some of the best examples of KM systems are:

  • Feedback Database
  • Shared Project Files
  • Research Files


I hope your organization is ready to adopt the Knowledge Management Model methodologies.

A number of the model exists that the organization can utilize the knowledge management strategies to fulfil all the business requirements on a large scale.

It ultimately depends on the basic needs and changes to make an appropriate KM model for the organization. So, just follow the best techniques that suit you perfectly and enhance your business strength. Still, have any query or confusion? Don’t worry, just connect with us through our contact us page and we, at The Cloud Tutorial, will help you understand our knowledge management platform can help you in your organization.

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