Models of Knowledge Management (KMModels) Explained

A process to transform information into knowledge within the organization is the Knowledge Management Cycle. It includes the procedure that mentions the capturing, processing, and distributing of knowledge in the organization. The organization must adopt impressive knowledge management based on its ability to enhance business productivity and growing demands.

7 Knowledge Management Models

The knowledge spiral model, most commonly known as the SECI model, is one of the best adopted and widely used KM models for the organization.  This model of KM provides the complete transformation process of tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge within the company.

The extension and modification of the knowledge spiral model take place in order to deal with the complicated and dynamic nature of the knowledge environment. This section highlights the essential theoretical KM models that work extensively in terms of knowledge management literature.

  1. Von Krogh and Roos Model

    Designed for Differentiating Between Individual Knowledge and Social Knowledge

    Let’s understand the point of view behind building the model of KM by considering the following diagram.
    Von Krogh and Roos Model
    According to the organizational KM model, von Krogh and Roos came up with an innovative framework solution that the knowledge typically occurs in:

    • The mind of the people
    • Links between them

    It is one of those KM models that examines knowledge management’s essence specifically in terms of:

    • Knowledge Workers
    • Better Communication Skills
    • Enterprise Structure
    • Network of Workers
    • HR Management

    The above five metrics initiate issues that can avert impressive strategies of knowledge management using cognitive perspectives. Now, what’s this term mean?

    It’s a cognitive system, in the form of human or virtual mode, having the responsibility to initiate or create a realistic model of KM. Once such model representations perform manipulation, the learning process comes into action.

    On the other hand, the system with organizational knowledge possessing functionalities using self-service is cognitive epistemology. Here, a team member is free to select and work with the information in such a way that it comes from external sources in a transparent manner.

    This KM perspective helps the individual’s brain to work like a machine that works for logic purposes. In this case, the company’s site needs an impressive framework to fetch information congruence like relational links, specifically from the logical environment actors.

    The brain cannot process the sequential symbols but possess the strong potential to handle the complete perspectives, impressive km models, and effective processes. The inter-related connection of the different components of KM is possible using the learning rules session to grab such nature of knowledge from the interior and exterior environments.

  2. Nonaka and Takeuchi

    Best for Knowledge Creation Process

    The Nonaka and Takeuchi KM model of knowledge conversion typically invokes four different knowledge conversion modes in the KM.

    • Indirect Way Approach – Socialization (tacit to tacit)
    • Indirect to Direct Way Approach – Externalization (tacit to explicit)
    • Direct Way Approach – Combination (explicit to explicit) 
    • Direct to Indirect Way – Internalization (explicit to tacit)

    Nonaka and Takeuchi Model

    Let us now highlight all the four approaches of the Nonaka and Takeuchi model framework in detail.

    Socialization is the model of KM technique through which an employee can quickly share tacit knowledge using monitoring, copying, implementation, and involvement in conventional and non-conventional communities and groups to enhance the traffic. This process typically develops the prevention of utilizing a physical or virtual space where interaction mainly holds on a social level.

    Externalization is an innovative platform to convey tacit knowledge into explicit concepts. This innovative approach of the model of KM plays a vital role in knowledge sharing and the creative process as the tacit knowledge typically is highly internalized.

    A combination is a KM model approach through which the company can smoothly integrate the concepts into an effective knowledge system. Some examples are review report forms, analysis trending, a detailed executive summary, or a new database for content management.

    Internalization is a responsive manner to consolidate explicit knowledge into tacit knowledge.

  3. Choo Sense-Making KM model

    Ideal for Decision-Making Process

    The three major components that Choo Sense-Making Model of KM shows a considerable focus on

    • Sense-Making
    • Knowledge Creation
    • Decision-making skills

    Choo Sense-Making KM model

    To flatten the company’s point of view, the above three highly interconnected processes play a vital role. The potential of knowledge creation and its commitment to implement such knowledge creation is of utmost importance.

    The organization’s primary purpose is to adapt and prosper in a dynamic and highly-complicated environment. This model of KM’s technique becomes quite possible by implementing various activities to interpret relevant information. Now, the company can quickly adopt the changes, drifts, and structure of clients, suppliers, and even competitors.

    A company can quickly create or acquire, manage and process data or information to develop new knowledge using an innovative way of a concept named organizational learning. Once such a grabbed information context is ready, it helps the companies initiate new abilities, new product creation, services and product development, better user experience, and redesigning organizational processes.

    The company must have the capability to deal with an option that is more reasonable, informative, and ready to be occupied based on its knowledge management strategy.

    This model helps the company to invoke all the informational elements in terms of organizational actions.

    You may also like to read: How Digital Knowledge Management Platform Enhance your Business Productivity?

  4. WIIGS KM Model

    Designed Explicitly for Knowledge Building Scenario

    Karl Wiig, knowledge management model, depicts that the knowledge management process must be perfect and reasonable to make useful and valuable knowledge.
    Wiig Model
    Let us now highlight the crucial dimensions in this model of KM.

    It is a process through which information-sourcing occurs using tacit or explicit knowledge within the company. On an initial level, the company needs to be aware of complete knowledge and knowledge-sharing capabilities using an efficient way of the KM model’s completeness approach.

    On an initial level, the company must be ready with complete knowledge. If no one exists to utilize or access such information or knowledge, then it is of no use for an individual.

    It deals with well-structured relations between the number of knowledge objects to create a strong network. As more the knowledge base is connected, the more the content is consistent and of more excellent value.

    The essential metrics like facts, procedures, relevant values, cunning, and relative connections must be harmonious and connected. However,  the majority of the knowledge content does not meet such perfections.

    It is a technique through which the company can know something from a specific opinion point. Such knowledge management typically applies to twofold proportions.

  5. Boisot I-Space

    Perfect for Decision-Making Process

    The knowledge management model by Boisot creates a decision-making ability based on useful information and differentiates it from a physical asset. Such differentiation of new knowledge from data by Boisot typically highlights all the information that is of prime importance to website observers.

    Boisot says that they are solely responsible for performing data extraction as a mandate function as per their experience or prior knowledge.

    Boisot’s model uses a three-dimensional cube structure:

    • From uncodified to codified
    • From concrete to abstract
    • From undiffused to diffused

    Boisot's model uses a three-dimensional cube structure

    Boisot came up with research and initiated Social Learning Cycle (SLC) that acquire the I-Space to create an impressive model using active knowledge workflow using five steps that aids in problem solving:

    With data availability of appropriate information, the company can quickly grab the understanding context.

    Using a defined structure, the complexity resolves by invoking the structure and consistency to this awareness as codified knowledge comes into action.

    The codified understanding that has just initiated generalization to a broader range of practical situations as knowledge becomes more intellectual.

    Once the diffusion occurs for the knowledge, there exists a sharing of understanding specific to the target population in a codified and abstract form.

    The newly systemized insights apply to several situations that typically invoke new knowledge and learning experiences as the info is absorbed and give rise to learnt behavior to become tacit knowledge.

    The primary goal of Boisot’s model of KM is to serve companies with cost-effective solutions. The company’s site simply adopts dynamic knowledge management strategies that directly help the learning cycle’s playful nature.

  6. ZACK Knowledge Management

    Best for Converting Information to Usable Knowledge

    Meyer and Zack initiated the Model of KM that includes the stages of a KM cycle highlighting the “refinery.”

    The ZACK KM Model includes the following steps:

    • Acquisition
    • Refinement
    • Storage and Retrieval
    • Distribution and presentation

    ZACK Knowledge Management

    Every stage of this KM framework follows the basic rationality principle of communicating with each other to facilitate knowledge repository analysis.

    This step primarily focuses on the quality and accuracy of the information.

    For instance, suppose you own a biscuit factory and need to buy wheat flour. As a result, you have multiple lists of wheat flour vendors, each possessing different pricing and properties for the same item. A quiet confusion occurs in your mind as you have to compare something and purchase the same thing having the same configuration.

    How do you get out of this complicated situation?

    To deal with such a situation, the company’s site needs to invoke standardized information to capture it. Data that are comparable and essential for biscuit manufacturing is available in a specified format.

    The Acquisition follows the primary principle of “Garbage In Garbage Out.” It means that individuals must take into account proper training to retrieve correct first-time information.

    Now, what’s the next step after acquiring information?

    It has to be stored, but not all information to be stored. The first thing is that the company needs to convert it into knowledge packets only. It will be relatively easy to use, store and retrieve for future purposes. This conversion process of information to knowledge packets is refinement.

    Based on the organization’s requirements, there exist multiple refinement types, as shown in the table:

    multiple refinement types

    Nowadays, the customized software includes information repositories, but most traditional organizations use files, folders, and other printed information to store information.

    But when to use such information?

    The answer is during the product creation process. For eg.  Information for the recipe and label creation, packaging, and other aspects.

    In this KM step, various information recipients are available, and the interactive method through which such information retrieval occurs.

    e.g., mails, prints, dossiers, etc. Moreover, the company’s website may use exact timing, excellent frequency, and design in order to retrieve any form or language to receive the best possible result.

    A final step of KM where the developed “information” takes the shape of “knowledge.” The recipient’s consideration becomes the primary factor for the presented information, dependent on the organization’s complexities. The information collection and packaging plays a vital role in enhancing company productivity.

    The final users usually generated this knowledge’s feedback mechanism in order to enhance the improvement in the knowledge repository. This, in turn, removes needless information or creates new elements to the process of the information capture.

  7. Complex Adaptive System Models

    Based on Advanced Intelligent Techniques

    An organization is nothing  but seen as an adaptive, complex system  – Intelligent Complex Adaptive Systems (ICAS)

    A system with several individualistic representatives that perform significant interaction locally is a complex adaptive.

    The knowledge management models that adopt complex adaptive structures include functions strings.  The primary reason behind it is to bring insurance among the living system feasibility in general and of organizations, to a great extent.
    Complex Adaptive System

    ICAS systems typically follow cybernetics principles. Is it connected to Cyber based information? No. It uses communications and control mechanisms to understand the process a viable company’s site should perform.

    The adaptive systems possess various independent representatives that interact with each other to enhance business performance. 

    The model usually includes composite behavior, where the self-organized people in organizations are intelligent elements. In addition to it, such aspects are a fundamental part of the organization’s hierarchies.

These are the leading and top-most knowledge management models that help you, and your company deal with the knowledge or information management approaches on a large scale.

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For any organization, the primary limelight is to create and maintain the four pillars of knowledge management. The following are the four pillars of KM that provide great transformation.

  • Leadership
  • Business Value
  • Technology
  • Learning

The two major types of knowledge that organizations usually adopt are:

  • Explicit Knowledge
  • Tacit Knowledge

A primary purpose of knowledge management systems is to interpret, structure, store, and finally share the company or individual’s information assets within the company. Some of the best examples of KM systems are:

  • Feedback Database
  • Shared Project Files


I hope your organization is ready to adopt the km Models methodologies. Connect with us through our contact us page, and we, at CloudTutorial, will help you understand our knowledge management tool that can help you in your company’s site.

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