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Knowledge Management Process: Benefits + Challenges + Life Cycle Models

“The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance; it is an illusion of knowledge.”

– Daniel J. Boorstinerror


Knowledge is a boon for any organization running on any sector. The knowledge does not matter the audience you target, products, or services you offer; instead, what matters is the Knowledge Management (KM) you apply in your organization. The organization must possess a robust Knowledge Management Process to enhance staff productivity, improve the product and service quality, and on-time delivery consistency based on knowledge-based assets.

Skandia initiated the first Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) position, which became a boon for other companies to treat knowledge management practice as the main base of their organizational structures. It becomes quite a mandate to follow best practices as initiated by Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi. They formed academic research on the SECI model (socialization, externalization, combination, internalization). This model comes into action when you plan to deal with knowledge creation, knowledge storage, or knowledge transfer. It results in making an appropriate decision to apply the right knowledge management strategy for your organizations’ decision making.

An optimal knowledge management strategy will ensure that you are not living in the illusion of knowledge and can refer to your content management database as an integral part of knowledge assets.

It was a small introduction to knowledge management. This article covers the complete and relevant information about Knowledge Management, including essential operation, implementation steps, evolution, benefits that organization can possess, challenges, lifecycle model for KM, and the most recently answered questions for your assistance.


Basic Operations of KM

Basic Operations of KM

As we are aware of the theory of Knowledge Management that it operates with the same steps globally to make accurate business decisions. The process has been formalized and is perfect up to an extent by numerous scholars and knowledge management experts over the years.

Nowadays, many organizations plan the knowledge base  of the overall workforce as per the following consideration:

  • Navigation support using multiple searches and improved decision-making capabilities
  • Internal communication and collaboration
  • Performing accurate analytics and optimization, most commonly referred to as Lessons Learned terminology.

It becomes a prime emphasis to access knowledge to enhance business growth and create an inspiring environment for knowledge acquisition, policies, and human capital resources as key assets. These are vital assets in the business.

However, the tools or information technology used may vary as per the organization. Whichever computing tools one may use, if they follow the techniques and procedure correctly, then the solutions in knowledge management of information and sharing knowledge will be smooth.

  1. Collection

    The knowledge management processes depend on this base step and require special attention. If the data for projects you collect while data mining is incorrect, inaccurate, or irrelevant, it can seriously hamper the next few steps in the KM strategy. Therefore, the best idea is to make sure that your supervising ability is perfect for verifying the source of your information and double-checking the progress of its relevance.

    There are many different procedures and techniques for collecting data; hence, you should document the process your organization is planning to follow, so you can ensure that the resources of the organization are following it for sharing knowledge.

    As per the knowledge management procedure, specific data collection points and some examples include daily attendance reports or monthly sales reports. Depending on the data collection points, the method of collecting data and sharing knowledge also varies. For example, you might be compiling the daily attendance reports through a bio-metrics attendance machine, and the sales report might be in the form of physical receipts.

    Besides data collection points and extraction processes, another aspect of defining here is data storage, just like knowledge management software once you determine that in your KM strategy. So, it becomes easy for your staff members to follow the best practices while seeking or sharing knowledge.

  2. Organization

    Just collecting the data is not enough, and you also require to arrange the data in a systematic order, meaning it is easy to understand or use. You can divide the data as per the category of the information (sales data in a separate file, staff information in another, purchase reports in another) or your organization’s KM procedures. You might even use various techniques like normalization to ensure that all the data is categorically in the correct place. In this way, you can easily arrange and relate data of the projects. Once this step is complete, raw data turns into information.

  3. Summarize

    In this step of knowledge management processes, you demand to summarize the information in a way that gives the fundamental essence from it. It is easy to understand lengthy data points when representing it in a tabular or graphical format and to store it properly.

    For summarizing, there are many tools available, like software packages, charts, and various techniques.

  4. Analyze

    In this step of your knowledge management processes, you need to analyze the information and find any relationships, redundancies, or patterns present in the data available.

    It is better to assign a team of experts to the projects for this management knowledge strategy because experience and expertise are essential. After analyzing, the team of experts creates different reports with their analysis.

  5. Synthesizing

    It is a key knowledge base platform of your KM systems that quickly transforms your information into knowledge. To derive different concepts from the data, you can combine the analysis reports.

    It is also possible to apply one entity’s pattern to explain another and thus obtain a set of knowledge elements that you can use across the organization resources. It will help you improve your KM processes and strategy.

    The organizational knowledge base then stores this knowledge for whenever you want to use it in the future. More often than not, the knowledge base is a software that you can access from anywhere and any mobile device. As long as you have an internet connection, you will be able to access the knowledge database without any problems.

    1. Decision Making

      At this stage, you may use the knowledge in the database to make decisions. The decisions could be essential and crucial decisions on which your company could be dependent. Or the findings could be everyday routine decisions that help you with management and running the business efficiently daily. For example, Suppose you are calculating an estimate for a specific type of project resources. In that case, you can easily make use of the data that you have, which is related to previous calculations—estimating a specific type of a project or a task.

      It helps you speed up the learning procedure and transfer knowledge quickly, which is the estimation process in this case. It also gives a higher percentage of accuracy to the results by using previous results and minimizing the chances. Thus, the organizational KM strategy adds a lot of value and helps your company save time and money if you look at it longer.

Core Components of KM

Components of Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management includes the four essential components: people, process, content/IT, and strategy. No matter what industry you work for, size it has, or knowledge requirements your organization possesses, you require people that can lead, sponsor, and support knowledge sharing for you as well as your projects

Your business needs an interpreted operation to govern and compute knowledge processes. Knowledge content and IT tools make it relatively easy for people to connect the correct people with accurate articles. And last, a strategy that is completely clear and documented is a must to use KM for meeting the essential needs of the business.

  1. People

    Are you aware of the phrase “people, process, and technology.”? Yes. You are correct; it is a “golden triangle.” Many organizational leaders have used this concept since the early 1990s to guide initiatives and lead to organizational change. 

    According to the journal of knowledge management, New York, your initiative typically fails if you concentrate only on a single factor. Based on their research,  it has been found that the order is an essential aspect as you must have the right individual in front of you before proceeding into learning processes and technology. To initiate a Knowledge Management practice program, two categories of people come into action:

    • Senior Authority:  To avail sponsorship and broader organizational strategy
    • Cross-functional stakeholders:  For implementation guidance

    Senior authorities are of prime importance as they have something additional benefit to gain from KM implementation. Often, such case studies are solely responsible for leading business areas with significant, urgent knowledge and resources needs. 

    To select cross-functional stakeholders, consult with your colleagues in HR, IT, and process improvements to a great extent.

  2. Process

    The organization that possesses the KM system handles the knowledge flow, just like water supply. If anyone needs the information, they can just open the tap and grab it quickly. It is only the KM teams they are aware of the active procedure or the flow the organization needs.

    This component’s key responsibility is to identify the bottlenecks, flows rerouting, and calculate required inputs and outputs. But the end-user is entirely unaware of the knowledge capture process that runs behind the scene. For them, the essential part is grabbing the knowledge simply and easily.

    A standard knowledge flow process that any organization follows includes seven-steps:

    • To develop new knowledge, and this occurs typically every day, at any time, and most important, across all business areas.
    • Knowledge identification that is typical to strategy and operations
    • Knowledge collection to share with others
    • Knowledge reviewing to evaluate its relevance, accuracy, and applicability
    • Knowledge sharing  using documentation, informal posts, and collaborative activities
    • Knowledge Accessing using pull (e.g., search) and push (e.g., alerts) mechanisms
    • To make use of knowledge to solve problems quickly and make more informed decisions.
  3. Content/IT

    Content is a magnificent form of documented knowledge that can efficiently assess the best practices to share off-the-cuff tips amongst workers working in the same organization. The range usually includes basic stuff like templates and how-to videos, which might be somewhat messy and unstructured information can be easily created using the content strategy (e.g., project documentation). 

    Content is typically kept separate from IT. The primary reason is that IT infrastructures’ role is to enable an individual to create this stuff, put it somewhere, and access and reuse it. If the organization does not have KM, people will make appropriate use of content—but they’ll put it in places where the other staff cannot find it easily. It can also re-make things which others have already created, and most dangerously, reuse the same content that’s out of date or incorrect.

    An impressive KM program consists of workflows to create and access content, various techniques to organize content, and using technology tools to connect people to content.

  4. Strategy

    Business strategy plays a significant role in the KM program for any organization. If the proper and responsive approach is not available, you are nothing even if you possess the best technology tools and a super-smart KM team.

    There is an excellent saying by Kenichi Ohmae, “Rowing harder doesn’t help if the boat is headed in the wrong direction.” 

    It means that a solid business case is a must that can easily demonstrate a deep understanding of your organization’s knowledge needs. The business case should outline:

    • The Value proposition for KM
    • The Tools, approaches, and roles
    • An attractive budget
    • The expecting impact of KM (ROI)

    So, the core components enhance your business strength, if fulfilled clearly. Now let us highlight the benefits that KM uses to reach your business state to the next level.

Benefits of KM

For any business running in any sector, Knowledge management practice is just the perfect solution if applied correctly.

There are many benefits that many organizations opt for a perfect knowledge management solution. Such a solution includes appropriate document management, data mining, interactive blogging, and interaction using impressive community forums in their enterprise portals.

To enhance your business strength, it becomes of primary importance to understand the maximum benefits your organization can grab using the outstanding knowledge management operations to a great extent. This section will highlight some of the best services that improve your business strategies using this impressive tool.

  1. Team Boosting and Employee Alignment

    A practical mechanism to keep your organization more decently is adapting knowledge management. The team members or resources must be in perfect communication and collaboration with other members to enhance their business growth.  KM  does the same to enhance knowledge sharing among the team.  

    It leads to easy work for resources’ easy work to remain on the same page to complete the pending or running tasks. It ensures hand-offs go smoothly and helps to minimize the redundancies to a great extent.

    With KM’s help, it becomes quite helpful to the employees to know of their efforts to enhance the business growth to reach the goals.

    As per the recent survey of TinyPulse, this makes an employee spend more time working with the assigned duties to recognize the business’s effectiveness and have more commitment towards success for their business.

    Once knowledge of management is applied correctly, all your company members will continue to work toward a common objective. As a result, it becomes straightforward to get impressive outcomes.

  2. Enhance Team Productivity

    In 2019, the TSIA survey said that around 72% (44% of responses from outside of technical support, 15% from customer success, and 13% from professional services.) of the organization believe in improvising their knowledge management practice efforts for business productivity. 

    • Quickly access the document management covering the best practices to follow and instruction steps to deal with specific tasks and other resources factors.
    • Efficiently do communication and collaboration with one another in a real-time scenario.
    • Make an appropriate usage of any available tools and technology to reach their primary goals.

    More chance that your team expert can get run out-of-scope, which leads to losing the sight where they were working if you are not applying knowledge management practice in your organization. 

    So, when you include KM in your business plan, it becomes a perfect roadmap for the employees to provide complete awareness and insight from the lessons learned of the varied tasks and functions from previous projects to perform in the upcoming future.

  3. Retain Knowledge Within Your Organization

    When a senior employee or a valued person resigns, finding a new employee who takes care of the same role and responsibilities becomes quite challenging. The key reason is that they have quite good and impressive experience dealing with the task or activity area.

    The first and foremost thing to note is that this employee’s loss creates a significant gap in the organization’s workflow and productivity.

    And, even if you a new hire employee, it becomes quite tedious to reach the former employee’s productivity for at least a year—and maybe more.

    Finally, your former employee’s tacit knowledge is gradually lost, eventually accumulated throughout their tenure with your organization.

    To overcome such issues to lose an employee, effective KM offers knowledge transfer or knowledge storage functionality to minimize the damage affected to your business when an employee leaves.

    When discussing the workflow gaps, your team usually accesses all the relevant documents related to the vacant position. It helps your team to fill workflow gaps left by the previous employee.

    KM also makes employee onboarding ease, ensuring new hires have everything they require to start being productive from the first day. 

    The employees can quickly grab the advantage to know the next recurring steps to follow using proper knowledge management programs.

    Finally, it can be more tedious to capture the proper tacit knowledge; it can easily document it “in action.” 

    All the previous employees’ interactive data, including video demos, impressive portfolios, and other knowledge-based activities, possess tacit information to be taken into consideration.

  4. Offering Added Value and Enhancing Customer Experience

    The customers can avail the benefit of knowledge management in two ways.

    The creation and delivery of the articles specifically for the self-service purposes work typically as a customer-facing knowledge.

    It helps them navigate to any of the service or product pages without any assistance from your team member. 

    Such a self-directed experience is the primary factor in improving customer satisfaction and in enhancing business growth.

    In addition to it, the KM is solely responsible for handling customer inquiries as they arise on a large scale. It makes it easy for the customer to grab any knowledge related to their queries. 

    It leads to spreading happiness among the customers by spending less friction during these engagements within the organization.

    These two benefits usually help the employee in the following ways as mentioned below:

    • As the customers can quickly resolve any smaller topics on their own, thereby leading to fewer supporting tickets for the same.
    • They usually have additional time and energy to invest in solving the complex problems requiring a more practical approach on their end.

    Only your customers who ultimately finalize it to grab benefits from your KM-related efforts for any such cases.

  5. Continual Growth Based on Knowledge

    Nowadays, almost all organizations focus primarily on gaining business growth in delivering the best product or service to their leading clients in this competitive world. So, it becomes quite apparent that your business should be more prioritized on knowledge, thereby enhancing your team members to opt for better results.

    Instead of just sharing the collective knowledge they possess, the organization must have a KM-focused team that works imperatively to improve their experiences.

Challenges in Knowledge Management Processes

Knowledge Management Challenges

Normally, when talking about the KM processes, it becomes quite a mandate to understand its key steps during such operations.

  • Knowledge Discovery & Detection
  • Knowledge Organization & Assessment
  • Knowledge Sharing
  • Knowledge Reuse
  • Knowledge Creation
  • Knowledge Acquisition

Now, let us highlight the topic that identifies the main challenges that any business faces when KM comes into action.

  1. Security Concerns

    Your data is essential to your organization, and it needs an ample amount of security to ensure confidentiality. It helps your customers build their trust in your brand and stay loyal to you. If any company leaks data on purpose or by mistake, it doesn’t matter how large your firm is; the brand value will drop down.

    By using KM procedures and tools that have higher levels of security and permissions, you will ensure that your data is safe and secure. It helps you create a higher brand value, keep your data safe, and ensure that customers stay loyal to your business.

  2. Improving Organizational Culture

    Office politics is a common thing that hinders growth and productivity in many corporations. It results in the hoarding of information and a break in the flow of knowledge sharing too. Managers often face this type of resistance in their teams or resources of the organization when setting up better KM operations.

    To prevent this from happening, managers want to develop a culture of learning, growth, sharing and changing to better the organization. A team that can adapt change quickly will find that they can rapidly adapt to new activities and the latest tools.

  3. Accuracy and Reliability

    One of the more significant challenges to maintaining a repository of knowledge is ensuring the tools’ information is all up to date and accurate. If a crucial data point is inaccurate, it will be problematic for everyone to access the tools for sharing knowledge.

    To ensure accuracy, you will need to keep a check on the knowledge base articles, and as the number of data increases, you might even require a person to keep a check on the same full-time. However, in the initial steps, you can just set up regular reminders and tools to ensure that everything is in place.

  4. Staying Ahead with Management Technology

    No matter what tools or technologies you use, you should expect regular updates or new versions. However, it might be challenging to keep up with all the tools and constant new updates. However, you need to remember that updates usually come in when there is something better in store. These tools will help you achieve more and do things better than you were doing before.

    Now that you know the type of challenges you might face as a manager or owner of an organization, you should also understand various life cycle models for the KM processes. There are four basic models; let us take a look at them and understand them in detail.

  5. Enhancing People Motivation

    The core challenges they face are getting all the workers working in the same department to run them on the same track for any organization. It becomes quite tedious for individuals to calculate a measurement to handle the operation to store and share the data. 

    Usually, the people, especially developers, find it quite cumbersome to handle the application building’s complete coding structure. They demand to share the code with other employees to enhance the efficiency of the project.

    There must be an excellent team motivation to share their respective works and ideas in the sharing space to get your project’s massive success and massive success. It works well if we apply for proper training on knowledge strategy, creation, knowledge transfer, maintenance, reporting, and changes between the users.

  6. Calculating Knowledge Contribution

    Knowledge is a vital asset in everyone’s life. It entirely depends on the human relationship and expertise level that how you apply knowledge. Sometimes, it becomes quite challenging to match the expectation of one person with another.

    For any organization, knowledge sharing must be kept open for all the employees. In simple words, one employee must contribute its knowledge to other workers with a primary aim to share the purpose rather than waiting for the outcomes.

    So, these were the challenges that occur during the development of the knowledge management process.

Top 4 Knowledge Management Life Cycle Models

Knowledge Management practice Lifecycle is nothing but a procedure that transforms the information into specific knowledge within the organization. Generally, there exist four key life cycle models for the KM processes based on their actions on decision-making ability to meet the organizations’ demands. 

These models or cycles explain the complete transformation process of information into knowledge. Take a look at these four models in-depth to understand the basic KM processes and the best practices to follow.

  1. Wiig Model (1993)

    Wiig Model

    Karl M. Wiig was one of the pioneers in KM processes and the first to publish a paper. His knowledgement management cycle addresses the approach that an individual or organization personnel takes for building knowledge repositories or databases. The KM practice model addresses the firm as a whole and includes business areas in almost all organizations.

    According to the Wiig model, three conditions should be available in an organization to do business successfully. They are as follows:

    • They have a business (service or commodity) and customers.
    • They have specific sets of resources (people, budget, facilities).
    • They have the strength to act.

    This knowledge manager model states and relies on the fact that if you want the information to be useful, it should adequately organize by using the right tools. For this reason, the primary goal of the KM practice model is to manage and control the data as soon as it codifies.

    However, the knowledge management process also outlines how to build, store, pool, and then extend the information as knowledge. There are four major phases in the KM model, namely, build, hold, pool, and apply knowledge. Let’s take a look at them in detail below:

    • Building knowledge: You can build knowledge from various sources, external and internal, in such a way that it covers both tacit and explicit knowledge.
    • Holding knowledge: Your business and the employees need to store the information in specific or easily retrievable physical formats by using management tools. The training or appropriate mentoring required for this knowledge storage needs to be given by you to the employees.
    • Pooling knowledge: For this step, you have to utilize appropriate tacit knowledge management systems that ensure cross-talk between different groups of people or experts.
    • Applying knowledge: In this step, you should utilize knowledge management tools. It specifically changes or improves various internal work operations so that new knowledge is collected and embedded automatically to knowledge management tools.

    Karl Wiig proposed his KM model in 1993, and some of the key elements that he suggested were:

    • Connectedness
    • Completeness
    • Congruency
    • Perspective and purpose

    Let us discuss them in more detail.


    This element describes the amount of relevant data, information, or knowledge available from a particularly given source. The sources may vary and range from human minds to knowledge bases or management tools (such as tacit or explicit knowledge).

    First and foremost, you have to ensure that all the information is complete. Suppose the information is already available on the topics. In that case, people are unaware of its existence or unable to utilize it because of some other reasons or a lack of proper management tools.

    Moreover, in the acquisition stage, the Zack knowledge management model’s guiding principle is “Garbage In, Garbage Out.” It means that people should get the proper training to understand the process and get it right. It helps ensure that any knowledge they put into the knowledge management system is correct and relevant for you to get the results that you desire from this model.


    This element gives you a brief about the relations between various knowledge objects. These relations are already well-understood and well-defined between the items. Most knowledge objects connect in some of the different ways, just like personalization. As per the survey of the journal of knowledge management, by including the more relationships in knowledge management tools, the better is the content. These connections ensure that the content and knowledge management tools are consistent and of more excellent value than the content with no links.


    You can judge the congruence of knowledge management tools based on all the facts, concepts, perspectives, values, judgments, and connections. The journal of knowledge management suggests that you should primarily ensure that the links are consistent and related to all the knowledge objects. The majority of the knowledge bases or the articles in them do not meet these criteria.

    Perspective and Purpose:

    It is a methodology that helps you know something from a particular point of view and for a specific purpose. In this step, you should organize most of your knowledge by applying the dual dimensions of perspective and sense. Through this model principle of the knowledge management process, you will define various levels of internalization of information.

  2. Zack Model (1996)

    Zack Model
    The Zack model derives from working on the design and development stages of knowledge management. The major developmental phase of a knowledge repository in the knowledge management process requires analysis and then mapping to a KM model’s steps.

    In the Zack model, the phases are somewhat similar to the Wiig model. Still, the significant difference arises in the fact that the Zack model prioritizes a logical and standardized approach between each new stage. The main phases or locations of the Zack KM model are acquisition, refinement, storage/retrieval, distribution, and presentation. Let us understand them better.

    Acquisition of Data

    At this stage, the focus is on the quality and accuracy of the information on hand. The information you collect here is in the form of raw data from various organization departments.

    The data includes various knowledge objects such as where does the firm acquire materials from and what are the specifications for the materials such as scope, sizing information, credibility, accuracy, a timeline of the information, relevancy to the other knowledge objects, cost, source, exclusivity, and additional information.

    For example, let us imagine that you run a cloth manufacturing factory and you are buying raw cotton for making these clothes. You might be having many vendors for natural cotton, and each one of them gives you a different specification and quotation for the same amount of cotton. Even the quality, type, and delivery dates match each vendor, yet the reference is different.

    For example, let us imagine that you run a cloth manufacturing factory and you are buying raw cotton for making these clothes. You might be having many vendors for natural cotton, and each one of them gives you a different specification and quotation for the same amount of cotton. Even the quality, type, and delivery dates match each vendor, yet the reference is other.

    It makes it difficult and almost impossible to measure and reach a good decision while keeping in mind that quality is the same. For such cases, you will need to capture all the various data points and ensure that the information that you collect is standardized.

    It is essential because you can only compare the data you collect and store in a standard format. The relevancy and the connectedness of the information to your clothes manufacturing business are also essential and crucial.

    Moreover, in the acquisition stage, the Zack knowledge management model’s guiding principle is “Garbage In, Garbage Out.” It means that people should get the proper training to understand the process and get it right.

    It helps ensure that any data they put into the information system is correct and relevant for you to get the results that you desire from this model.


    After acquiring information, you need to store it but keep it in mind that not all information is stored. First, you should convert the data into various knowledge packets so that the process of storing the data becomes more comfortable. It also makes it simple to retrieve the information in the future whenever you need it. This stage in KM processes for converting information in the knowledge packets is known as refinement.

    There are many different types of refinements that you can apply to information. This knowledge retention type that you use depends on the basis of requirements of your organization. For example, Physical improvement applies when you migrate information from one medium/location/software to another.

    On the other hand, you should apply logical refinement when restructuring the information into preset formats. Your company can also use this step when indexing and integrating any information into a more extensive data group.

    Cleaning is applied when you are getting rid of redundant information or duplication. You may even utilize it for removing unnecessary parts of the entire package of information.

    Standardization is another type of refinement that will help you in tailoring all information into predefined templates. It will help you make it easy to compare and improve the usability of the information.

    Storage and Retrieval

    Although knowledge management software is replacing traditional storing information methods, many enterprises even store their files, folders, and other printed or written information forms.

    You can utilize this information during the stages of product creation. For example, information necessary for recipe and label creation, packaging, and other activities.


    In this stage of Zack’s knowledge management process, you need to define the various recipients of the information and the mode in which they will receive this information. The methods can vary from mails, prints and any other type. You will need to specify the timing and frequency at which they will receive the information and the form and language of the information.


    Presentation is the final step, and after this, the information is nothing but the knowledge.

    The presentation overview of the information in the knowledge management process depends on the complexities of your organization. You will need to consider the recipients too for this stage.  Each recipient has a particular need for the different parts of knowledge that they will receive. By tailoring and packaging experience for each group of recipients, you will see an increase in your business productivity.

    The final users of the knowledge generate feedback. It will help you continuously improve your knowledge sharing behaviour and data repository by adding new elements and knowledge, removing redundant and irrelevant information.

    The Meyer and Zack knowledge management model is one of the best models covering the entire organization and gives a complete picture of a robust KM practice model’s elements.

    The Meyer and Zack knowledge management model is one of the best models covering the entire organization and gives a complete picture of a robust KM model’s elements.

    However, if you have a vision for the cycle to work as intended, there are some knowledge prerequisites that you will need to provide:

    • Front end: rules on how one can identify source information, acquire the same, refine it and add it to the repository properly
    • Final stage: rules and information about copyrights, confidentiality, attribution to help understand how knowledge sharing is to take place for distribution and usage

    The refinery model for managing knowledge repository or database, your organization will need the support of:

    • Core supervising capabilities in Information Technology
    • Internal information about the business or the company
    • External knowledge about the current trends and market status
    • The organization’s management and organizational systems

    The strength of this KM practice cycle lies in the refinery and renewal of information.

  3. Bukowitz and William Model (2000)

    Bukowitz and William Model
    This knowledge management model builds upon the previous two. It expands the definition of knowledge sharing and storage to include the infrastructure to support the organizational learning communities. The knowledge-sharing model also highlights how organizations can generate, maintain, and expand knowledge repositories in a way that creates value. Various knowledge types are recognized in this framework and include databases, communication infrastructure, technologies, organizational skills, and other knowledge.

    Bukowitz and William also emphasize in their KM practice systems, the need to maintain the repository and build it. The various phases in this knowledge sharing management model are: get, use, learn, and contribute.

    1. Get Stage: In this stage of the Bukowitz and William model, you need to acquire specific information that will help you in making decisions, solving problems, or creating new products or services. You can seek or procure this data in the raw form from various sources within your organization.

    2. Use Stage: In this stage of the knowledge management system, you need to combine the features in various ways. The information could be individual or group in a way that is easy to use in the future. The knowledge will be useful for the innovations or renovations of various operations in your organization’s KM processes.

    3. Learn Stage: In a business environment, whenever you extract or share knowledge, new knowledge is automatically generated. It does not matter whether the venture is successful or a failure. By doing this, you and your firm get multiple benefits. It will help you ensure that the same mistakes are not repeated in the future when you are working on some other project that is similar to it. This knowledge will also help you improve your competitive advantage. Hence, it is essential to integrate this new way of sharing your innovative knowledge.

    4. Contribute stage: Employees are like the cogs in a wheel. Hence, your knowledge management procedure must include contributions from the employees as well. In the Bukowitz and William knowledge management procedure, the employees give their assistance to update the database and the knowledge repositories continuously. It helps you to document tacit knowledge easily.

  4. McElroy Model (2003)

    McElroy Model
    McElroy, through his KM processes, shows concern with knowledge production and integration. By doing so, he is building upon the process focus of the Bukowitz and William knowledge management model. It helps create different ways for your employees or the resources to submit claims when they don’t receive or fail to understand knowledge. It is an effort to improve group organizational learning and contribution by the teams. The phases in the McElroy model are learning, validation, acquisition, integration, and completion.


Your organization manages the information and its related knowledge specifically to benefit both the organization and the stakeholders. The organization’s strategy and objectives depend entirely on the good KM strategy to provide the best momentum and implementation justification. The following are the list of points that need to consider before creating a KM strategy:

  • Enhance cross-discipline awareness among the employees about KM practice.
  • The Business case should be informative and can example, identify potential benefits
  • Acquire senior management devotion for leadership
  • Communicate good KM practice

You will come across multiple examples of knowledge management that help you grab the smooth-running KM strategy in your organization to enhance business performance.

  • Evernote
  • Canva
  • Instacart
  • Slack
  • Amazon

The knowledge Management Cycle (KMC) includes:

  • Identify/Create
  • Store
  • Share
  • Use
  • Learn
  • Improve

KM is the platform that quickly identifies, organizes, and even shares its knowledge among the employees. The Knowledge Management field typically covers two main types of knowledge.

  • Explicit knowledge: Easily articulated and understood, and transferred to others.
  • Tacit knowledge: Difficult to neatly vivid, package, and transfer to other members.


KM processes are an essential practice for the adoption of businesses and organizations. Organizational knowledge also helps in adding long-term benefits for the company in the form of finances, culture, and people.

Therefore, all mature organizations should take the necessary steps to use your best practices to enhance their business advances and operations, and overall capability.

KM processes are the science of pictorially depicting the KM framework in such a way that it shows the integration and inter-relationships between various knowledge management elements in a lucid manner. Knowledge management models and tools try to capture all the different management activities within an organization, the unique knowledge management requirements of each of them and facilitate a system of acquiring and storing this data using the right tools to enable continuous organizational learning and improvement.

A knowledge management framework is one that captures all the relevant aspects of knowledge management with appropriate detail. As organizational needs vary, you must choose the right knowledge management model and tools to not waste time and resources in capturing irrelevant data.

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